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API Hardening / Restricting

Request (human/pod+sa) --> authN --> authZ (k8s api) --> admission controller


  • dont allow anonymous access
  • close insecure ports
  • dont expose ApiServer to the internet
  • restrict access from Node --> API (NodeRestriction)

Anonymous Access#

check /etc/kubernetes/manifest/kube-apiserver.yaml for allowing anoymous access flags

spec:  containers:  - command:    - kube-apiserver    - --anonymous-auth=false

then check it via curl [email protected]$ curl -k https://localhost:6443

should show "Unauthorized" now.

BUT- we need to enable it because liveness pods need it for calling k8s api anonymously.

Insecure Access#

note, since v1.20 you can no longer run kube-apiserver with --insecure-port=XXXX as it is diabled BUT- learn this for places running older k8s.

if you use --insecure-port it will do the following

  • HTTP (sniff)
  • bypasses authN and authZ modules
  • admin controller still enforced

can disable by setting port=0

Manual API Request#

using kubeconfig to make manual request.

  1. copy server-certificate-data from ~/.kube/config through | base64 -d to ca.crt
  2. copy client-certificate-data from ~/.kube/config through | base64 -d to client.crt
  3. copy client-key-data from ~/.kube/config through | base64 -d to key.pem
  4. get ip address from ~/.kube/config section under clusters:cluster:server

the call

curl https://master-local-ip:6443 --cacert ca.crt # works
curl https://master-local-ip:6443 --cacert ca.crt --cert crt --key key.pem # works

External API Access#

api-server reachable from the outside world.

simple - edit the kubernetes service change ClusterIP to NodePort : k edit svc kubernetes

grab the port from k get svc

# external-ip from cloud provider e.g. GCPlocalhost$ curl https://external-ip:NodePort -k # authN as user

get kubeconfig from your master node: k config view --raw copy output to a local ~/config file BUT you need to change the server address from the local-ip (e.g. to the external-ip:NodePort that works for you in the curl command previously.

use the local external access via: k --kubeconfig ~/config get ns

you get an error. why?

ip address of the cert is valid for the local-ip where the cert was setup (master node), but now we're trying to use it on the external-ip.

inspect the cert as follows:

# inspect apiserver certcd /etc/kubernetes/pkiopenssl x509 -in apiserver.crt -text

it checks out that the cert only allows the two ip addresses local to the node... how to fix?

add a host entry in your local machine /etc/hosts

<external-ip> kubernetes

now try use the local external access via: k --kubeconfig ~/config get ns and it should work.

NodeRestriction AdmissionController#

this admin controller

  • kube-apiserver --enable-admission-plugins=NodeRestriction
  • limits the node labels a kubelet can modify

secure workload isolation via labels!

Verify NodeRestriction#

do this on worker node.

check in kube-apiserver manifest that NodeRestriction is enabled.

on the worker node, export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf <-- this is the kubelets kubeconfg file for talking to the k8sAPI.

worker$ export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.confworker$ k get ns # fails, forbiddenworker$ k get node # worksworker$ k label node cks-master cks/test=yes # fails, forbiddenworker$ k label node cks-worker cks/test=yes # worksworker$ k label node cks-worker # fails, forbidden